Sources of protein
- Soybean meal
A by-product of soybean processing, which is produced by separating oil with the help of diluents. The content of fat in the soybean meal is usually below 2%. The content of proteins fluctuates between 42 and 50%. Can be used as a source of protein for animals and birds of all breeds and ages.
- Sunflower meal and cake
A by-product of sunflower seed processing which is produced by pressing the oil out of peeled or split (half-peeled) sunflower seeds by using a press. The amount of fats in the meal may reach even 10%. Oil meal is produced by separating the oil with the help of a diluent. The fat content is up to 2%. The total protein may fluctuate in a wide range – from 25 to 40%. The higher the content of protein, the lower the content of wood fibre and the product is more valuable. The product is used depending on the requirements for protein.
- Rapeseed cake
A by-product of rapeseed processing which is produced by expressing the oil in a press. Both cold pressed and hot pressed rapeseed cake is available on the market. They differ in fat content, which is 10 – 14% in the cold pressed and 7 – 10% in the hot pressed rapeseed meal. The meal is rich in protein: 30 – 40%. The product may contain erucic acid and glycolizates that limit its use. The daily dose for cold pressed meal is up to 2 kg and for hot pressed ones – up to 3 kg.
- Wheat bran
Product of grain processing containing grain pericarp with flour and biologically active sprouts of grain. Bran is richer in proteins, fats, and some minerals (especially phosphorus) than grain. Up to 4 kg of bran may be fed to dairy cows and horses. It is useful for feeding pregnant sows in the first half of gestation in order to provide the feeling of filling, as the energy value of the feed dose after insemination must be cut at least in half compared to the one the sow received during lactation.
- Feed yeast
A product with high protein content produced by microbiological synthesis – up to 52% in the dry matter. It is used depending on the requirements for protein. For dairy cows a maximum dose is 2 kg daily.
- Skimmed milk replacer Agrolac
Analytical components: crude proteins – 37.8%, crude fats – 1.0%, crude fibre – 1.8%, lactose – 22%. Used for preparation of young animal feed: adding 5-20% in pigs, 15-20% in calves, 15-20% in goats, 3 – 5% in broiler chickens.
Sources of energy
Corn contains the highest amount of energy among grains, as it is rich in starch and fats (3-6%) and has low levels of crude fibre (about 2%). The protein content of corn is low (on average 10 % in dry matter). Corn grain is useful for feeding animals and birds of all breeds.
- Sugar beet pulp, dried
Bagasse is valuable as it helps in reducing the ratio of easily fermentable carbohydrates (especially starch) in the feed ration of the cattle, keeping the energy content high at the same time. Most of the dry matter of the pulp is made up of pectins, which are well fermented in the rumen. Although the levels of NDF are rather high (59.2% in dry matter), it is considered to be an easily fermentable crude fibre. Almost half of the energy feed may be substituted by bagasse, including 3 – 6 kg of dry sugar beet pulp into the feed ration.
It is a dark, thick liquid left after production of sugar. Molasses is made up of 75% of dry matter, which contains 60 – 70% of sugars, 8 – 10% of alkaline ash and 8.2% of protein. The sugars and salts irritate the intestinal mucous membranes in cattle, which is why it is recommended to dilute it with water before use by pouring over coarse feed or by making an admixture in a mixer while preparing a feed ration. The daily dose for cows does not exceed 2 – 2.5 kg, for horses – 1.5 kg. 0.4 – 0.5 kg of molasses can be fed to grown pigs and sheep per each 100 kg of live weight.
- Dry protected palm oil fats
High quality and concentrated additional source of energy. The fat is protected against the micro flora of the rumen. Energy contents: NEL – 24 MJ/kg, ME – for birds – 28.2 MJ/kg, ME – for pigs – 27.8 MJ/kg.
- Sodium chloride (table salt)
Source of sodium
- Calcium carbonate (limestone)
Source of calcium
- Sodium bicarbonate (soda)
Neutralises the acid in the rumen of a cow. Used for prevention of acidosis in cases of feeding highly concentrated feeds.